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H 276 x W 203 mm

140 pages

54 figures, 13 tables

Published Sep 2020

Archaeopress Access Archaeology


Paperback: 9781789696851

Digital: 9781789696868

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Cambridge Monographs in African Archaeology 100

Foragers in the middle Limpopo Valley: Trade, Place-making, and Social Complexity

By Tim Forssman

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Foragers were present in the Limpopo Valley (South Africa) before the arrival of farmers and not only witnessed but also participated in local systems leading to the appearance of a complex society. Despite numerous studies in the valley, forager involvement in socio-political developments has been, until now, largely ignored.



Chapter 1: Interactions, frameworks and complexity ;
Chapter 2: Forager contexts in the middle Limpopo Valley ;
Chapter 3: Continuities and discontinuities across the contact divide ;
Chapter 4: Early socio-political change ;
Chapter 5: Foragers during and after state formation ;
Chapter 6: Networks of Change in the valley and beyond ;
Chapter 7: Redressing perspectives of foragers interactions ;
Chapter 8: References

About the Author

Tim Forssman is a senior lecturer at the University of Pretoria. Previously, he managed a dam development mitigation project in Lesotho and was a postdoctoral reader at the Universities of the Witwatersrand and Pretoria. His research interests include forager-farmer interactions, forager economies, trade dynamics, landscape archaeology, and rock art.


'In summary, Forssman’s book provides new knowledge of and ideas about hunter-gatherers in the Limpopo Valley during the last 3000 years. His work opens many new avenues for research that I hope will attract students and researchers in the years to come.'