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K'awiil: El dios maya del rayo, la abundancia y los gobernantes analyses one of the most important deities of the Maya pantheon, and allows us to approach the religious thought of this people, since it is through the myths, rituals and other religious and cultural activities in which a deity participates, that we can try to understand how the Maya conceived their universe. K'awiil was one of the main deities worshipped by the ancient Maya. The anthropomorphic representation of the axe of the rain god Chaahk, he embodied the powers of lightning, such as its ability to bring wealth, principally food, and its powers of transformation, which enabled him to invoke the beings that inhabit the realms of the sacred. These powers proved especially attractive to Mayan rulers, as they represented their own ability to nourish their people, both physically and spiritually. These characteristics allowed K'awiil to be used to symbolise the power of these lords, materialised in the form of a sceptre in his image, which the lords used mainly during their enthronement ceremonies. The continued presence of K'awiil from the Early Classic to the Postclassic, as well as the spatial distribution of his representations, makes him one of the most stable and universal deities of Maya religion, and his influence is still palpable in the religious traditions of the Maya peoples of the present day, in the form of the lord of lightning and as part of the sphere of action of the deities of sustenance.
K'awiil: El dios maya del rayo, la abundancia y los gobernantes analiza a una de las deidades más importantes del panteón maya, lo que nos permite aproximarnos al pensamiento religioso de este pueblo, ya que es a través de los mitos, los rituales y otras actividades religiosas y culturales en las cuales participa una deidad, que podemos intentar comprender como concebían su universo. El dios K’awiil fue una de las principales deidades a las que adoraban los antiguos mayas. Siendo la representación antropomorfa del hacha del Dios de la lluvia, Chaahk, encarnaba los poderes del rayo, tales como su capacidad para aportar riqueza, principalmente alimenticia y su poder de transformación, el cual le permitía realizar la invocación de los seres que habitan los dominios de lo sagrado. Estos poderes resultaron ser especialmente atractivos para los gobernantes mayas, pues representaban su propia capacidad para alimentar a su pueblo, tanto física como espiritualmente. Estas características le permitieron convertirse en el símbolo del poder de estos señores, materializado bajo la forma de un cetro con su imagen, el cual utilizaban principalmente durante las ceremonias de su entronización. La presencia continuada de K’awiil desde el Clásico temprano hasta el Posclásico, así como la distribución espacial de sus representaciones, le hace una de las deidades más estables y globales de la religión maya, llegando su influencia a ser palpable aún en las tradiciones religiosas de los pueblos mayas de la actualidad, bajo su forma del señor del rayo y como parte del ámbito de acción de las deidades del sustento.
About the Author
Rogelio Valencia Rivera holds a Master of Science degree from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid and a PhD in History with a specialisation in American Anthropology from the Faculty of Geography and History of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He has been part of the Calakmul Archaeological Project since 2008. He specialises in Maya and Mesoamerican epigraphy, iconography, history and religion, with special emphasis on the analysis of the relationship between text and image in pre-Hispanic plastic representations.
Rogelio Valencia Rivera es maestro en Ciencias por la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid y doctor en Historia con especialidad en Antropología Americana por la Facultad de Geografía e Historia de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Forma parte del Proyecto Arqueológi
The Alexandrian Corinthian Capital and its Role in the Evolution of the Corinthian Order in Hellenistic, Roman, and Late Roman Architecture discusses the evolution of the Corinthian capital in Antiquity and how this centred around Alexandria rather than Mainland Greece. It tackles the rise of the Corinthian capital in Classical Greece and its adaptation on in Hellenistic Alexandria. It describes the different designs of the Alexandrian capitals and later their adaptations throughout the Hellenistic world, the Roman Empire, and the early centuries of the Byzantine Empire and neighbouring countries. The book also shows how the Hellenistic versions of the Alexandrian capitals continued to be used in the Roman period both directly and indirectly.
About the Author
Ahmed Bassioni is currently a PhD candidate at Alexandria University. He earned his diploma in 2018 and his MA in 2021 from the Alexandrian Center for Hellenistic Studies. He also works as a part-time translator.
Paisajes, espacios y materialidades: arqueología rural altomedieval en la península ibérica brings together a selection of the papers presented during the first edition of EMCAM - Early Medieval Countryside Archaeological Meetings (Castelo de Vide, May 2019), organized by the Institute of Medieval Studies (IEM – NOVA FCSH) and the Municipality of Castelo de Vide. The last three decades of archaeological fieldwork and research have revealed the importance of rural landscapes in analysing the processes of change that followed the collapse of the Roman imperial structure. In this volume, the contributions of key researchers in early medieval peasant archaeology, especially in the north-western quadrant of the Peninsula, are brought together, offering a multiscale image of the main lines of ongoing research. The different chapters collect theoretical reflections, methodological approaches, studies of ceramic collections and bioanthropological, anthracological and carpological data from different sites, offering unpublished contexts, critical reviews, and regional syntheses. To reconstruct the historical processes of the early medieval peasant communities requires, simultaneously, detailed knowledge about specific settlements and territories and space to debate, reflect, and draw comparisons. This book aims to do just that.
About the Editors
Sara Prata (Researcher), Fabián Cuesta-Gómez (Researcher) and Catarina Tente (Associate Professor) are members of the Institute of Medieval Studies from NOVA University Lisbon – School of Social Sciences and Humanities (IEM - NOVA FCSH). Their current research focuses on early medieval communities, particularly in the Portuguese inland territories of Beira Alta and Alto Alentejo. In the last years they have promoted scientific meetings, and shared their findings in international conferences, which have been published in papers, chapters, and book form. Their research and associated activities have been developed within working protocols with municipalities from the Portuguese inland, promoting decentralized research and social returns for local communities.
Paisajes, espacios y materialidades: arqueología rural altomedieval en la península ibérica reúne una selección de los trabajos presentados tras la primera edición del EMCAM - Early Medieval Countryside Archaeological Meetings (Castelo de Vide, mayo 2019), organizado por el Instituto de Estudios Medievales (IEM – NOVA FCSH) y la Cámara Municipal de Castelo de Vide (Portugal). Las últimas décadas de trabajo de campo e investigación arqueológicas han demostrado la relevancia de los paisajes rurales para el análisis de los procesos de cambio tras la desarticulación de la estructura imperial romana. En este volumen, se reúnen las contribuciones de investigadores clave en la arqueología campesina altomedieval, especialmente en los territorios del cuadrante noroccidental de la Península, ofreciendo una imagen multiescalar de las principales líneas de investigación en curso. Los diferentes capítulos recogen reflexiones teóricas, enfoques metodológicos, estudios de colecciones cerámicas y aproximaciones a la bioantropología, antracología y carpología de diferentes yacimientos, ofreciendo contextos inéditos, revisiones críticas y síntesis regionales. Avanzar en la reconstrucción de los procesos históricos de las comunidades campesinas altomedievales requiere, simultáneamente, generar conocimiento detallado sobre yacimientos y territorios concretos y promover espacios de debate y reflexión que permitan dar continuidad a esas lecturas. Este libro tiene como objetivo hacer precisamente eso.
Sara Prata (Investigadora), Fabián Cuesta-Gómez (Investigador) y Catarina Tente (Profesora Asociada) son miembros del Instituto de Estudios Medievales (NOVA FCSH). Sus investigaciones se centran en las comunidades rurales altomedievales, particu
Measurements of bones and teeth play an important role in zooarchaeology. They are useful in distinguishing between closely related species and between their wild and domestic forms. Measurements can tell us about size and shape, and for large samples it is sometimes possible to ascertain the sex ratio of the animals from which the bones are derived. For sequences of archaeological assemblages, changes in sizes can tell us about environmental and economic changes such as the advent of domestication and livestock improvement.
An Experimental Approach to Archaeomorphometrics has the following aims: to publish a set of metapodial (Artiodactyl) measurements to facilitate comparisons with other bones from archaeological sites and to help the interpretation of measurement data; and to gain a better understanding of metric data, i.e., how much dimensions of different bones and parts of bones vary, and how they reflect the condition of the animal in life. To this end the volume uses principal component analysis to interpret morphological differences between taxa. About the Authors
Kalangi Rodrigo studies at the Department of Archaeology, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka as a final year Undergraduate. Her focus is on Zooarchaeology and Ecological Perspectives on Sri Lankan Prehistoric Studies. ;
Kelum Manamendra-Arachchi is a faunal specialist and herpetologist currently affiliated with the Postgraduate Institute of Archaeological Research, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. He has been working in Sri Lankan Prehistoric excavations since the 1990s identifying faunal materials.
The twentieth annual meeting of the Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology (SOMA) was held in Saint-Petersburg, Russia on 12-14 May 2016. As in the past, the symposium provided an important opportunity for scholars and researchers to come together and discuss their works in a friendly and supportive atmosphere.
The main theme of the 2016 meeting is the archaeology of the Northern Black Sea. The Northern Black sea region is an area rich in archaeological sites, on the one hand, and subject to active industrial development, a rapidly growing population and the development of port and recreational facilities on the other, with an attendant growth of pollution and waste. Therefore, in addition to traditional issues related to archaeological finds in various parts of the Mediterranean, the papers focus on new ideas for the conservation and management of sites of historical and cultural heritage.
About the Editors
Hakan Oniz completed his masters and PhD in Underwater Archaeology at Selçuk University, Konya. He manages several Underwater Archaeology research and excavation projects on the Turkish Mediterranean Coast, is Secretary and bureau member of ICOMOS-ICUCH (International Committee of Underwater Cultural Heritage), a member of the UNESCO National Observation Committee of Underwater Archaeology, and a member of the CMAS Scientific Committee. ;
Sergey Fazlullin is President of the Russian Underwater Activities Confederation, Associate Professor of the Department of Museology of the Russian State Humanitarian University and a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Since 1982, he has been collaborating with leading Russian universities as a supervisor of field marine practices and theses.
‘Archaeology and Techne’ publishes papers resulting from the European project EPNet (Production and Distribution of Food during the Roman Empire: Economic and Political Dynamics). Various interdisciplinary research techniques and results are presented. The main goal of the EPNET project was to use formal tools to investigate existing hypotheses about the Roman economy in order to understand which products, and in which periods, were distributed through the different geographical regions of the empire. The project also aimed to ascertain the role that different political and economic agents played in controlling both production and trade networks.
‘Arqueología y Téchne’ presenta varios trabajos realizados por los miembros del equipo del proyecto europeo EPNet (Producción y distribución de alimentos durante el Imperio Romano: Dinámica económica y política; ERC Advanced Grant 2013-ADG 340828). Aquí se publican diversas investigaciones y resultados interdisciplinarios. El objetivo principal del proyecto EPNet era utilizar herramientas formales para falsificar las hipótesis existentes sobre la economía romana para comprender qué productos, en qué períodos, se distribuyeron a través de las diferentes regiones geográficas. También se destaca el papel que desempeñaban los diferentes agentes políticos y económicos en el control de los productos y las redes comerciales.
About the Editors
José Remesal Rodríguez has been Professor of Ancient History at the University of Barcelona since 1988. He is founder of the ‘Centro para el Estudio de la Interdependencia Provincial en la Antigüedad Clásica’ (CEIPAC), with projects in Austria, Germany, Italy, Libya and Tunisia. His work has been published internationally in more than 160 scientific articles. The main subject of his research is the interaction between political and economic life in the Roman world, based on the study of the production, distribution and consumption of food. ;
Jordi Pérez González is a postdoctoral researcher ‘Juan de la Cierva-Formación’ at the University of Girona (Department of History and Art History). He received his Doctorate from the University of Barcelona, obtaining the Extraordinary Doctorate Award (2017). He was a research technician in the CEIPAC group during the period 2013-2020. As well as numerous journal articles he is the author of Sumptuary Specialists and Consumer Elites in Rome’s world order (2021).
Since 2007, the conferences organized under the title ‘Broadening Horizons’ have provided a regular venue for postgraduates and early career scholars in Ancient Near Eastern Studies. Three volumes present the proceedings of the 6th Broadening Horizons Conference, which took place at the Freie Universität Berlin from 24–28 June, 2019. The general theme, ‘Bridging the Gap: Disciplines, Times, and Spaces in Dialogue’, is aimed at encouraging communication and the development of multidisciplinary approaches to the study of material cultures and textual sources.
Volume 1 contains 17 papers from Session 1: Entanglement. Material Culture and Written Sources in Dialogue; Session 2: Integrating Sciences in Historical and Archaeological Research; and Session 5: Which Continuity? Evaluating Stability, Transformation, and Change in Transitional Periods.
About the Editors
Christian W. Hess (PhD Ancient Near Eastern Studies, 2013) is a research fellow at the Center of Advanced Studies ‘Rethinking Oriental Despotism’ at the Freie Universität Berlin. ;
Federico Manuelli (PhD Ancient Near Eastern Studies, 2011) is a researcher at the Institute of Heritage Science of the Italian National Research Council (ISPC-CNR) and a guest researcher at the Institut für Altorientalistik at the Freie Universität Berlin.
The Medieval Floortiles of Herefordshire presents a survey, in the form of a gazetteer, of the extant decorated floortiles of Herefordshire, with some tiles that are no longer available but which are known from records also included. For each site, each individual floortile design is illustrated and parallels from other sites are outlined. It is to be expected that the largest collections of medieval floortiles in Herefordshire would be found at the religious centres of Abbey Dore, Wigmore, Leominster, and Hereford. However the largest installation visible today is at St Katherine’s Chapel, Ledbury, where approximately 500 tiles of the Bristol Canynges Group (c.1485) survive in remarkably good condition. Similar designs from the Bristol Canynges Group have been found at Netherwood in Thornbury and at Deans Place, Yatton. At Stretton Sugwas and at Croft there are virtually identical collections of random tiles, many with designs similar to a pavement commissioned by Abbot Sebroke for Gloucester Abbey in 1455. Other close links with Gloucester are evident in the Dilwyn tiles which feature many of the same designs found at Blackfriars, Gloucester. Two of the designs exhibit the same flaw in the stamp, reinforcing the connection between the two sites. Whilst many of the designs are to be found at multiple locations, Leominster has some unusual edging strips featuring dots and squares and a dotted chequer board design not found elsewhere. Leominster also puts us in direct contact with the tile maker (or his assistant) who has made his own random design. Elsewhere, some surprisingly rural churches (such as Castle Frome) have retained really interesting examples of decorated floortile (see front cover) – well kept secrets!
About the Author
Julie Bowen graduated from the University of Wales (Newport) with a BA Hons in Archaeology in 2007 and worked with Church and Site Archaeology, based in Monmouth, whilst continuing excavating with the Herefordshire County Archaeology Team. She now lives in Dorset, where she is a member of the Association of Portland Archaeologists and the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, taking part in regular summer excavations on the Isle of Portland and the South Dorset Ridgeway. The author’s interest in medieval floortiles was triggered taking part in a dig at Leominster Old Priory in 2005 which led to her dissertation on the important collection of tiles found there.
Paesaggi urbani e rurali in trasformazione publishes the proceedings of a conference organised by the Doctoral School of the Universities of Pisa, Florence and Siena to discuss landscape transformations from a diachronic perspective. The volume addresses the landscape as a complex and dynamic entity characterised by a multiplicity of phenomena in continuous transformation produced by the interaction and mutual conditioning of natural and anthropic factors. Adopting this perspective, the landscape is studied through the analysis and interpolation of multiple sources. Use of resources, production, distribution and population are read in a broad perspective to contextualise human presence over time and space. The diversity of case studies thus allows us to address the issue from different points of view - urban, commercial, productive, cultural - to illuminate the particular characteristics of an environment as it is lived in and perceived.
About the Editors
Fabio Fabiani and Gabriele Gattiglia both work at the Department of Civilisations and Forms of Knowledge of the University of Pisa, they are respectively Associate Professor of Classical Archaeology and Assistant Professor in Archaeological Method and Theory.
Questo volume è dedicato agli Atti del Convegno Paesaggi urbani e rurali in trasformazione organizzato dalla Scuola di Dottorato delle Università di Pisa, Firenze e Siena per discutere le trasformazioni del paesaggio in una prospettiva diacronica. Il volume affronta il tema del paesaggio come entità complessa e dinamica caratterizzata da una molteplicità di fenomeni in continua trasformazione prodotti dall'interazione e dal reciproco condizionamento di fattori naturali e antropici. Adottando questa prospettiva, il paesaggio viene studiato attraverso l'analisi e l'interpolazione di molteplici fonti. Uso delle risorse, produzione, distribuzione e popolazione, vengono letti in una prospettiva ampia per contestualizzare la presenza umana nel tempo e nello spazio. Diversi casi di studio, quindi, consentono di affrontare il tema da diversi punti di vista - urbano, commerciale, produttivo, culturale - per valorizzare le caratteristiche peculiari dell'ambiente per come è stato vissuto e percepito.
Fabio Fabiani e Gabriele Gattiglia fanno parte del Dipartimento di Civiltà e Forme del Sapere dell'Univeristà di Pisa, rispettivamente come Professore Associato di Archeologia Classica e ricercatore di Metodologia della Ricerca Archeologica.
Ground Stone Tools and Past Foodways brings together a selection of papers presented at the 3rd meeting of the Association of Ground Stone Tools Research, which was held at the University of Copenhagen in 2019. Ground stone artefacts are one of the most enduring classes of material culture: first used by Palaeolithic gatherer-hunters, they are still used regularly by people in many parts of the world to grind, mash and pulverize plants, meat and minerals. As such, ground stone artefacts provide a well preserved record at the nexus of interaction between humans, plants and animals. The papers in this volume focus especially on the relationship between ground stone artefacts and foodways and include archaeological and ethnographic case studies ranging from the Palaeolithic to the current era, and geographically from Africa to Europe and Asia. They reflect the current state of the art in ground stone tool research and highlight the many ways in which foodways can be studied through holistic examinations of ground stone artefacts.
About the Editors
Patrick Nørskov Pedersen is a PhD-student in Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen. His research specializes in ground stone tool technology, currently focusing on the ground stone assemblages from Shubayqa 1 and 6, two late Epipalaeolithic-early Neolithic sites in eastern Jordan. ;
Anne Jörgensen-Lindahl is a PhD student at the department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies, University of Copenhagen. Her PhD project researches the chipped stone assemblage from Natufian-PPNA Shubayqa 1 and 6 (Jordan) using micro-wear analysis to understand the role of the tools in terms of food procurement, processing and disposal during the early stages of the transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture in southwest Asia. ;
Mikkel Sørrensen is Associate Professor of prehistoric archaeology at the SAXO Institute, University of Copenhagen. His main areas of research are prehistoric hunter-gatherer societies of northern Europe and the eastern Arctic, climate change research in human science, lithic technology and the chaîne opératoire approach. ;
Tobias Richter is Associate Professor in Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Copenhagen. His research focuses on the material culture, economy, social organisation and development of gatherer-hunter-cultivator-fishers during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in southwest Asia.
Transhumance presents a collection of papers exploring the practice, impact and archaeology of British and European transhumance, the seasonal grazing of marginal lands by domesticated livestock, usually accompanied by people, often young women. All but one were first given in 2018 at the Newcastle and Durham conference of the International Association of Landscape Archaeology. Their range is wide, geographically (Britain, Italy, Spain, France and Norway) and temporally (prehistory to the present day). The approaches taken include excavation and artefact analysis, fieldwalking, archaeological survey, landscape archaeology and history, analysis of ancient texts, inscriptions and records, ethno-archaeology, social network analysis and consideration of the delicate balances between the natural resources that transhumants exploit and the intangible cultures that are developed and sustained as they do so. The volume re-emphasises that much of European history and culture has been and in some places continues to be dependent on the annual migrations to and then back from the mountains, forests and bogs. It notes and explains how transhumance systems are not timeless and unchanging, but instead respond to wider economic and social changes. But, it also shows how transhumance itself contributes to changes, and continuities, including how the organisation of access to common pastures crystallises principles that underpin much broader legal and social systems.
About the Editors
Mark Bowden BA, MCIfA, FSA, worked for over 30 years for Historic England and its predecessor bodies as a landscape archaeology surveyor and investigator, before retiring in 2020. Among his many research interests are common lands and he has undertaken much survey work in England’s uplands. He was founding Chair of the Landscape Survey Group 2014-2021 and is now an independent researcher. ;
Pete Herring MPhil, MCIfA, FSA, has spent over 40 years studying all aspects of the historic landscape of Cornwall and Britain, chiefly for Cornwall Archaeological Unit and Historic England. He has often turned to consideration of the commons and those who seasonally inhabited and used them, but has also enjoyed placing them in relation to the histories of the more permanently settled farmland and urban areas.
Tra Esino e San Vicino offers a completely new interpretation of the religious architecture which, between the Romanesque and Gothic periods, established itself in the centre of the Marche region, in an area known as the Valle di S. Clemente. Here, starting in the 11th century, was an extraordinary flourishing of settlements made up of abbeys, hermitages and parish churches, whose oldest structures are often preserved, most of them still legible in their stratigraphy. Through a detailed analysis of the composition of their walls, conducted according to the most modern methodological criteria, and a critical rereading of the written sources, it was possible to reconstruct the different building phases that mark the history of the churches under examination, attesting to the transformations that occurred over time due to changing liturgical needs and frequent destructive events. Thus the articulated architectural-liturgical configurations of some of the most important religious buildings in central Italy were revealed, starting with the crypt of S. Salvatore di Valdicastro, the first tomb of S. Romualdo, where it was possible to recover the liturgical ‘functions’, as well as some complex and extremely rare structures of which the written documentation bears no trace, such as the women's galleries of S. Elena all'Esino or the internal balconies of S. Urbano and S. Elena all’Esino. In addition, the study proposes a classification of masonry techniques, which made it possible to measure the character of the documented interventions and therefore the role that some magistri and the various construction workers played in the development of the architectural landscape of the area.
About the Author
Cristiano Cerioni graduated in Conservation of Cultural Heritage at the University of Udine. Later he specialized in history of medieval and modern art at the University of Florence with a thesis on the archaeology and architecture of the cathedral of San Leo. He later collaborated with the University of Florence in the excavation of the castle of Pietrarubbia and in the development of an atlas of construction techniques in Montefeltro. His recent publications include I conventi degli ordini mendicanti nel Montefeltro medievale. Archeologia, tecniche di costruzione e decorazione plastica (Firenze University Press 2012), jointly edited with Tommaso di Carpegna Falconieri. He is currently a teacher of the history of art at the Liceo "Bocchi-Galilei" in Adria (Rovigo).
Tra Esino e San Vicino offre una lettura completamente nuova dell'architettura religiosa che, a cavallo tra il romanico e il gotico, si afferma al centro delle Marche, in un'area denominata Valle di S. Clemente. Qui, a partire dall'XI secolo, si assiste ad una straordinaria fioritura di insediamenti costituiti da abbazie, eremi, pievi, di cui spesso si conservano le strutture più antiche, la maggior parte ancora leggibili nella loro stratigrafia. Attraverso un'analisi dettagliata delle strutture murarie, condotta secondo i più moderni criteri metodologici dell'archeologia dell'architettura, e una rilettura critica delle fonti scritte, è stato possibile ricostruire le diverse fasi edilizie che hanno segnato la storia delle chiese esaminate, attestante le trasformazioni subite nel tempo a causa delle mutate esigenze liturgiche e dei frequenti eventi distruttivi. Sono così riemerse le articolate configurazioni architettonico-liturgiche di alcuni tra i più importanti edifici religiosi dell'Italia centrale, a cominciare dalla cripta di S. Salvatore di Valdicastro, prima tomba di S. Romualdo, di cui è stato possibile recuperare il "funzionamento" liturgico, fino ad alcune strutture complesse ed estremamente rare - ma non inedite nel panorama architettonico marchigiano - di cui la documentazione scritta non porta traccia, come i matronei di S. Elena all'Esino o i balconi interni di S. Urbano e S
Walter Benjamin observed that it is precisely the modern which conjures up prehistory. From Yanagita’s ‘mountain people’ to Umehara’s ‘Jōmon civilisation’, Japan has been an especially resonant site of prehistories imagined in response to modernity. Conjuring Up Prehistory: Landscape and the Archaic in Japanese Nationalism looks at how archaeology and landscapes of the archaic have been used in Japanese nationalism since the early twentieth century, focusing on the writings of cultural historian Tetsurō Watsuji, philosopher Takeshi Umehara and environmental archaeologist Yoshinori Yasuda. It is argued that the Japanese nationalist project has been mirrored by the continuing influence of broader Romantic ideas in Japanese archaeology, especially in Jōmon studies.
About the Author
Mark J. Hudson is a researcher in the Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany. He previously taught archaeology in Japan for more than 20 years and was Professor at the University of West Kyushu and the Mt. Fuji World Heritage Centre. His previous publications include Ruins of Identity: Ethnogenesis in the Japanese Islands (Hawaii UP, 1999) and, as co-editor, Volume 1 of the Cambridge World History of Violence (CUP, 2020).
Arqueología de la arquitectura en el oppidum oretano de El Cerro de las Cabezas focuses on the two bastions that make up the south gate of the Iberian oppidum of Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real). It comprises two defensive constructions whose internal space fulfilled a socioeconomic function related to the storage of cereal. Primarily archaeoarchitectural, supported by the digitisation and study of the photographic archive of the excavation, the research aims to analyse the construction techniques and materials of both structures, define their successive construction phases within the historical process of the settlement and to evaluate the architectural ensemble within a spatial area of enormous importance within the urban framework. All this allows us to understand the continuous changes and transformations that this space suffered between the 5th and 3rd centuries BC to defend Punic influence and presence in this Iberian oppidum.
About the Author
Jorge del Reguero González holds a degree in history and a masters in Archaeology and Heritage from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM). He has participated in several annual research projects at the Iberian oppidum of El Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real), supported by non-invasive archaeological actions (geophysical surveys) and analysis of construction techniques through the archaeology of architecture. He has also participated in excavations at the Tartessian site of Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz) and the eastern necropolis of the Spanish-Roman site of Baelo Claudia (Bolonia, Cádiz).
Se aborda en el presente trabajo un estudio arquitectónico sobre los dos bastiones que configuran la puerta sur del oppidum ibérico de El Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real). Se trata de dos construcciones defensivas cuyo espacio interno cumplió con una función socioeconómica relacionada con el almacenamiento de cereal. A través de este trabajo de investigación, de carácter arqueoarquitectónico, apoyado en la digitalización y reestudio del archivo fotográfico del proceso de excavación, se pretende analizar las técnicas y los materiales constructivos de ambas construcciones, definir sus sucesivas fases constructivas dentro el proceso histórico del asentamiento y valorar el conjunto arquitectónico en un área espacial de enorme importancia dentro del entramado urbano. Todo ello nos permitirá conocer los continuos cambios y transformaciones que sufrió este espacio, entre los siglos V y III a.C., para defender, seguidamente, la influencia y presencia púnica en este oppidum ibérico.
Jorge del Reguero González es graduado en Historia por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) y Máster en Arqueología y Patrimonio por la citada universidad. Ha participado en varios proyectos de investigación, de carácter anual, para el estudio urbano y territorial del oppidum ibérico de El Cerro de las Cabezas (Valdepeñas, Ciudad Real), apoyado en actuaciones arqueológicas no invasivas (prospecciones geofísicas) y análisis de las técnicas constructivas mediante una lectura propia de la arqueología de la arquitectura. Ha colaborado en las excavaciones en el yacimiento tartésico de Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz) o la necrópolis oriental del yacimiento hispanorromano de Baelo Claudia (Bolonia, Cádiz).
Drying kilns, corn-dryers and malting ovens are increasingly familiar features in post-Roman, Anglo-Saxon and medieval archaeology. Their forms, functions and distributions offer critical insights into agricultural, technological, economic and dietary history across the British Isles. Despite the significance and growing corpus of these structures, exceptionally few works of synthesis have been published. Yet such a foundational study was produced by Robert Rickett as early as 1975: an undergraduate dissertation which, for the first time, assembled a gazetteer of drying kilns from across the British Isles, critically examined this archaeological evidence in the light of documentary research, and established a typology and uniform terminology for drying kiln studies. This pioneering and oft-cited dissertation is here published for the first time, providing a foundation for the future study of drying kilns in Britain, Ireland and beyond. A new introduction and notes by Mark McKerracher set the original work within the context of drying kiln research since 1975.
Robert Rickett became interested in archaeology while he was at school in Stamford, Lincolnshire. After participating in several excavations, he went to University College, Cardiff, to study Archaeology and graduated in 1975. He worked on excavations in East Anglia before becoming a Research Officer for the Spong Hill Project (North Elmham, Norfolk), from 1977 to 1989. This included excavation supervision, archiving and publication work. Meanwhile his work in education with all age groups inspired him to study at U.E.A., Norwich, and from 1991 he taught in Primary Education. ;
Mark McKerracher is a Postdoctoral Researcher in the School of Archaeology at the University of Oxford, where he completed his DPhil – studying Mid Saxon agriculture – in 2014. After working in museum archiving, software development and freelance archaeobotany, he is currently researching medieval farming practices as part of the ERC-funded Feeding Anglo- Saxon England project (FeedSax). His interests include archaeobotany, database development, agricultural production and Anglo-Saxon archaeology.
Spring Archaeology stems from the pressing need to offer young researchers and professionals with a showcase for their work and is a journey across the many facets of archaeology in Italy, a country rich in history and innovation. The event, organised by a group of students and archaeologists from the University of Siena and re-arranged online due to the Covid-19 pandemic, has seen the participation of undergraduate, graduate, PhD students, freelancers, museological institutions and cultural associations. Papers and posters revolve around five major topics: the application of new technologies to the field of archaeology, the study of material culture, examples of public archaeology projects, advances in research and reflections on methodological problems. Contributing authors, including both Italians working abroad and foreign nationals working in Italy, presented case studies from prehistory to the medieval period, mainly centred in the Mediterranean context. These conference proceedings include 29 papers, 22 poster presentations and a synthesis of the closing round table, centred on the current status of archaeology in Italy and its possible future prospects.
About the Editors
The editors are all archaeologists who graduated from the University of Siena. Andrea Bellotti specializes in Public Archaeology and social media communication related to cultural heritage, and currently works as a research fellow at the the University of Siena. Luca Luppino is currently enrolled as a Master's Degree student in archaeology at the the University of Siena, specializing in the Late Antique and Byzantine period. Maria Messineo is a freelance archaeologist, currently fascinated by data science and specializing in Etruscology. Mickey Scarcella specializes in landscape archaeology, Geographical Information System (GIS) and cartography.
Nato dall'esigenza di fornire a giovani ricercatori e professionisti un'opportunità di mettersi alla prova e mostrare i propri lavori, Spring Archaeology è un viaggio attraverso le molte sfaccettature dell'archeologia in Italia, un paese ricco di storia e innovazione. L'evento, promosso da un gruppo di studenti e archeologi provenienti dall'Università degli Studi di Siena (IT) e ri-organizzato online a causa delle restrizioni imposte dall'emergere della pandemia da Covid-19, ha visto la partecipazione di studenti con vari livelli di formazione, dalla laurea triennale al titolo di dottorato, liberi professionisti, istituzioni museali e associazioni culturali. Papers e posters presentati si articolano attorno a cinque temi principali: l'applicazione di nuove tecnologie all'archeologia, lo studio della cultura materiale, progetti di archeologia pubblica, progressi nelle ricerche e riflessioni metodologiche. Gli autori, sia italiani impegnati all'estero che stranieri impegnati in Italia, hanno presentato casi studio dalla preistoria al medioevo, principalmente dall'area mediterranea. Questi atti di convegno includono 29 papers, 22 presentazioni di posters e una sintesi della tavola rotonda conclusiva, centrata sullo stato attuale dell'archeologia in Italia e sui suoi possibili futuri sviluppi.
Tutti i curatori sono archeologi provenienti dall'Università degli Studi di Siena, formati in diversi ambiti. Andrea Bellotti è specializzato in archeologia pubblica e comunicazione legata ai social media per la promozione del patrimonio culturale ed è attualmente impegnato come borsista di ricerca. Luca Luppino è attualmente iscritto ad corso di laurea magistrale in Archeologia, con un'enfasi sul periodo tardo antico e bizantino. Maria Messineo è un'archeologa libera professionista, affascinata dal Data Science e specializzata in etruscologia. Mickey Scarcella è specializzato sui temi dell'archeologia del paesaggio, sull'uso del Geographical Information System (GIS) e della cartografia.
Survey tra Fiumi, Pianure e Colline analyses the territory of Santa Croce di Magliano in the province of Campobasso, Molise, Italy and studies all its archaeological aspects in order to understand patterns of occupation of the human groups that have inhabited it and how they, through the evolution of social interactions, have received extraterritorial influences. It maintains a focus on this small area of the lower Molise in the wider regional context of the Frentano state. This study has been able to contribute further evidence to support attempts to explain the interactions between the Samnite cultures located north of the Fortore river and those located south of the same river, characterised by a Daunian culture (at least until the sixth century BC). It also highlights the evolution of settlement types over the centuries. Furthermore it has been also possible to highlight how the types of settlement have evolved over the centuries, up to the current urban form of the village considered in this study.
About the Author
Pasquale Marino is an independent researcher specialising in the archaeology of prehistoric and historical landscapes, in particular the analysis of artefacts related to their territorial contexts. After obtaining a Master’s degree at the University of Molise, he completed a PhD at the University of Campania ‘L.Vanvitelli’ (2018). He has published in various national and international journals and contributed in several national and international conferences. He is currently collaborating with the chairs of Prehistoric Material Culture and the Laboratory of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Department of Humanities, Social Sciences and Education of the University of Molise.
L’archeologia del paesaggio abbina lo studio dei materiali archeologici con lo studio del paesaggio per comprendere le fasi di sviluppo, mutazione e, nel caso, abbandono di un determinato territorio. Essa può essere considerata un grande contenitore in cui far confluire ogni aspetto dell’archeologia per ricostruire tutte le fasi umane relative ad un determinato territorio. La ricostruzione dei commerci, delle vie di comunicazione, del comportamento di gruppi localizzati in un determinato territorio e come essi possano essere stati influenzati dal territorio stesso.
In questo volume è stato preso in analisi il territorio di Santa Croce di Magliano, in provincia di Campobasso, Molise, Italia ed è stato analizzato in tutti i suoi aspetti archeologici per tentare di capire le modalità di spostamento dei gruppi umani che lo hanno abitato e come essi, con l’evolversi delle interazioni sociali, abbiano avuto influenze extraterritoriali, cercando di inquadrare questo fazzoletto di terra del basso Molise in quello che è un contesto di macro area come lo stato Frentano.
Con questo è stato possibile inserire un altro tassello che tenta di spiegare le interazioni tra culture poste a nord del fiume Fortore, di derivazione sannitica, con quelle culture poste a sud dello stesso fiume, di cultura daunia, almeno fino al VI sec. a.C. . Inoltre è stato possibile mettere in evidenza come si siano evolute le tipologie di insediamento nel corso dei secoli, fino ad arrivare all’attuale forma cittadina del paese di riferimento in questo studio.
Il dott. Pasquale Marino è un ricercatore indipendente specializzato il archeologia del paesaggio preistorico e storico. In particolare nell’analisi dei manufatti in riferimento ai contesti territoriali.
Dopo il conseguimento della laurea magistrale presso l’Università degli Studi del Molise, ha conseguito il Dottorato di ricerca presso l’Università degli Studi della Campania “L.Vanvitelli” (2018). Ha pubblicato in diverse riviste nazionali e internazionali e partecipato a diversi convegni nazionali e internazionali. Attualmente è collaboratore delle cattedre di cultura materiale preistorica e laboratorio d
The ancient Maya used mainly stone tools, made of either ground stone and chipped stone, to achieve their extraordinary development. However, works focused on this aspect are still rare. This book presents the techno-typological analysis of lithic materials from La Blanca, a Mayan archaeological site located in the heart of the Southern Lowlands, which was mainly inhabited during the Late Classic and Terminal Classic periods. In addition, a general methodology for the techno-typological analysis and classification of Mayan lithic artefacts is presented, which is complemented by an extensive graphic section that includes the technical drawings of most of the chipped stone tools.
Ricardo Torres Marzo received his Ph.D. in Art History from the University of Valencia, Spain, in 2014 and is currently a teacher of archaeology at the Postgraduate Program in Mesoamerican Studies at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). His research focuses on Lowland Maya archaeology with an emphasis on technical and typological analysis of lithic artifacts. He has directed and collaborated in different archaeological projects in Mexico, Guatemala and Spain.
Los antiguos mayas emplearon fundamentalmente herramientas de piedra, tanto tallada como pulida, para lograr su extraordinario desarrollo. Sin embargo, los trabajos centrados en este aspecto todavía son poco frecuentes. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis tecno-tipológico de los materiales líticos de La Blanca, un sitio arqueológico maya situado en el corazón de las Tierras Bajas del Sur, cuyo momento de ocupación más destacado se sitúa entre los períodos Clásico Tardío y Terminal. Además, se plantea una metodología general para el análisis tecno-tipológico y la clasificación de artefactos líticos mayas, que se ve complementada por un amplio apartado gráfico en el que se incluyen los dibujos técnicos de la mayor parte de los artefactos tallados.
Ricardo Torres Marzo es doctor en Historia del Arte por la Universidad de Valencia, España, desde 2014 y actualmente es tutor y profesor de arqueología en el Posgrado en Estudios Mesoamericanos de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Sus trabajos de investigación se han centrado fundamentalmente en la arqueología de las Tierras Bajas mayas y más concretamente en el estudio tecnológico y tipológico de los materiales líticos. Asimismo, ha participado como director y colaborador en numerosos proyectos arqueológicos en México, Guatemala y España.
The Roman necropolis of Melano (Canton Ticino, Switzerland), excavated in 1957 and 1979, is one of the few from this period discovered in the Sottoceneri region, where the findings are mostly isolated burials or those in small groups. It consists of 26 cremation and inhumation tombs and stands out for its variety of types and the materials used in their construction. Cremation burials, the most numerous, range from the simplest, single-chamber burials, up to double-chamber and multiple cinerary niches. Inhumation tombs, generally belonging to children or adolescents, have yielded clues as to the use of wooden boxes as coffins or the placement of the body on a cot or stretcher. The grave goods include all the main material classes of the Roman period typical of the region, together with finds that bear the imprint of a centre that developed along the shores of Lake Ceresio and activities related to it, such as fishing. The stratigraphy of the necropolis and the grave goods indicate continuous use from the 1st to the 3rd century AD.
About the Author
Christiane M. A. De Micheli Schulthess graduated in 1990 from the University of Zurich, majoring in Classical Archaeology, Egyptology and Ancient History. In 2001, she completed her PhD thesis, ‘Aspects of Roman Pottery in Canton Ticino (Switzerland)’, at the University of Nottingham (UK). She has pursued various studies in Classical and medieval archaeology, focusing in particular on Roman pottery and since 2000 has taken part in the excavation of the multi-period site of Tremona-Castello.
La necropoli romana di Melano (Canton Ticino – Svizzera), scavata nel 1957 e nel 1979, costituisce a tutt’oggi una delle poche di quest’epoca scoperte nel Sottoceneri dove i rinvenimenti sono invece perlopiù sepolture isolate o riunite in piccoli gruppi. È costituita da 26 tombe fra cremazioni e inumazioni e si distingue per la loro varietà a livello tipologico e per i materiali impiegati nella loro costruzione. Fra le sepolture a cremazione, le più numerose, vi sono quelle più semplici, a vano singolo, fino a quelle a doppia camera e a loculo cinerario multiplo. Le tombe a inumazione, generalmente pertinenti a bambini o adolescenti, hanno restituito indizi riguardo all’uso di deporre il corpo in cassa lignea o su un lettino o barella. Nei corredi funerari sono presenti tutte le principali classi materiali d’epoca romana tipiche della regione unitamente a reperti che recano l’impronta di un centro sviluppatosi lungo le rive del lago Ceresio e dedito a particolari attività ad esso collegate, come la pesca. La stratigrafia verticale della necropoli e gli oggetti di corredo ne indicano un uso continuato dal I al III sec. d.C.
Christiane M. A. De Micheli Schulthess si è laureata nel 1990 all’Università di Zurigo, specializzandosi in Archeologia classica, Egittologia e Storia antica. Nel 2001 ha completato la sua tesi di dottorato Aspetti della ceramica romana nel Canton Ticino (Svizzera) presso l’Università di Nottingham (GB). Ha svolto diversi studi di archeologia classica, in particolare sulla ceramica romana, e medievale. Dal 2000 partecipa agli scavi archeologici del sito multiperiodico di Tremona-Castello.
The Archaeology of ‘Underdog Sites’ in the Douro Valley brings together the best presentations from the eighth and ninth meetings of Archaeology of the Douro Valley, held in Ávila and Astorga (Spain), respectively in 2018 and 2019. However, instead of a simple collection of articles, the aim of this publication is to show the importance of projects that have been left in the background despite obtaining interesting archaeological data about the occupation of this valley and its evolution. Moreover, we must take into account that many of these projects support new activity in a rural territory that is increasingly neglected politically and economically. Hence the use of the term ‘underdog’, defined as a person or group of people with less power or money than the rest of society. Overall, the volume provides a general and interdisciplinary view of the different types of occupation in the territory of the Douro Valley. The chapters are divided into four sections, three of them chronological: Prehistory and Protohistory; Antiquity and Late Antiquity; and the medieval and modern ages. The last section is thematic and includes diachronic studies, museology, and the archaeology of mining. Therefore, the present volume is a medium to showcase the latest research carried out in this important territory and to contribute to knowledge of its history, updating the archaeological state of the art in the valley and presenting results that may be used in the most diverse types of comparative studies.
About the Editors
Santiago Sánchez de la Parra-Pérez is a pre-doctoral researcher at the University of Salamanca (Junta de Castilla y León and European Social Fund). His main research focuses on Latin epigraphy in Hispania. ;
Sonia Díaz-Navarro is a pre-doctoral researcher at the University of Valladolid (Junta de Castilla y León and European Social Fund). Her research is based on the osteoarchaeological study of the peninsular populations of recent prehistory (Neolithic-Bronze Age). ;
Javier Fernández-Lozano is assistant professor at the University of León. His main lines of research are the archaeology of mining and the study of the geological processes responsible for the formation of mountains in the Iberian Peninsula, using techniques based on 3D laser, spectral analysis and gravimetry. ;
Javier Jiménez Gadea is director of the Museum of Avila. He specialises in the Middle Ages, Islam and heritage management.
Esta monografía reúne las mejores contribuciones presentadas en las VIII y IX Jornadas de Arqueología del Valle del Duero, celebradas en Ávila y Astorga en 2018 y 2019, respectivamente. Más allá de constituir una recopilación de artículos, el objetivo de esta obra es poner de manifiesto la importancia de proyectos arqueológicos que han sido relegados a un segundo plano, a pesar de arrojar interesantes resultados sobre la ocupación del Valle del Duero y su evolución y constituir un recurso de dinamización de un territorio, eminentemente rural, cada vez más abandonado. A ello se debe que el título de este monográfico empleé el término ‘underdog’, definido como una persona o un grupo de personas con menos poder o dinero que el resto de la sociedad.
A lo largo de la obra el lector encontrará una visión general e interdisciplinar de los diferentes modos de ocupación y explotación del territorio en torno al valle del Duero. Los capítulos están estructurados en cuatro secciones: tres de corte cronológico –Prehistoria y Protohistoria, Antigüedad y Antigüedad Tardía y Épocas medieval y moderna– y una temática –Varia– que recoge trabajos de corte diacrónico, museológico o sobre la Arqueología de la minería.
Santiago Sánchez de la Parra-Pérez trabaja actualmente como investigador predoctoral en la Universidad de Salamanca (Junta de Castilla y León y Fondo Social Europeo). Su investigac
Tres usurpadores godos is a study of three famous usurpations of the Visigothic period. It first examines the nature of the uprising of Prince Hermenegild (579-585), the civil war and the complex political context of the time, as well as the important implications of the conflict. The second study deals with the rebellion of Duke Argimundo at the beginning of the reign of Recaredo and the consequences it had on the newly conquered Suebi kingdom. A prominent member of the Aula Regia and doge prouinciae, Argimundus started a rebellion in the province of Gallaecia that could have ruined the political endeavours of Leovigild and Recaredo. Finally, it analyses the figure of Duke Theudemirus, one of the great magnates of the kingdom of Toledo at the end of the 7th century, his actions within the complicated Visigothic political situation and the role he played in the transmission of power between Visigoths and Arabs after the fall of the kingdom of Toledo.
About the Authors
Rafael Barroso Cabrera (Madrid, 1963) holds a degree in Prehistory and Archaeology from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He is a specialist in studies on the Visigothic kingdom of Toledo, a period to which he has devoted much of his research work and numerous publications. ;
Jorge Morín de Pablos (Madrid, 1967) holds a PhD in Archaeology from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and is director of the Department of Archaeology, Palaeontology and Cultural Resources at AUDEMA. He has directed more than 300 archaeological excavations at different sites in Spain and abroad, with chronologies ranging from the Palaeolithic to contemporary times. ;
Isabel Sánchez Ramos (Córdoba, 1977) holds a PhD in Archaeology, specialising in the historical period of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. Her main scientific interest has been the study of phenomena related to urban societies in transformation between the Roman period and the High Middle Ages in the western Mediterranean, the spaces and architectures of power linked to the elites, and the impact they had on the evolution of urban landscapes.
Tres usurpadores godos es un estudio sobre tres famosas usurpaciones de época visigoda. Se analiza en primer lugar la naturaleza del levantamiento del príncipe Hermenegildo (579-585), la guerra civil y el complejo contexto político del momento, así como las importantes implicaciones que se derivaron del conflicto. El segundo estudio aborda la rebelión del duque Argimundo a comienzos del reinado de Recaredo y las consecuencias que ésta tuvo en el recién conquistado reino suevo. Destacado miembro del Aula Regia y dux prouinciae, Argimundus inició una rebelión en la provincia Gallaecia que pudo haber arruinado la obra política construida por Leovigildo y Recaredo. Por último, se analiza la figura del duque Theudemirus, uno de los grandes magnates del reino de Toledo de finales del siglo VII, su actuación dentro de la complicada situación política visigoda y el papel que desempeñó en la transmisión del poder entre visigodos y árabes a la caída del reino de Toledo.
Rafael Barroso Cabrera (Madrid, 1963) es Licenciado en Prehistoria y Arqueología por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Es especialista en estudios sobre el reino visigodo de Toledo, periodo al que ha dedicado buena parte de su labor investigadora y numerosas publicaciones. ;
Jorge Morín de Pablos (Madrid, 1967) es Doctor en Arqueología por la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid y director del Departamento de Arqueología, Paleontología y Recursos Culturales de AUDEMA. Ha dirigido más de 300 excavaciones arqueológicas en diferentes yacimientos de España y el extranjero, con cronologías que van desde el Paleolítico hasta época contemporánea. ;
Isabel Sánchez Ramos (Córdoba, 1977) es doctora en Arqueología especialista en el periodo histórico de la Ant
The Regina Turdulorum Hoard (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) was buried with 818 imitative antoniniani of Divo Claudio type, minted in copper. The vast majority of the coins bear the reverse legend CONSECRATIO. This figure makes the Regina Turdulorum hoard one of the most important in Spain and Portugal. In numismatic terms, the most common reverse type is the funeral pyre, as opposed to the eagle. In addition to this main group, there is a second group, where there are curious imitations that follow various prototypes for the manufacture of the reverse. The study of the posthumous coinage of Claudius II and his imitations represents one of the most complex tasks in ancient numismatics. The work is considerably complicated by the fact that they are highly copied coins, which means that regular issues are very difficult to distinguish from the imitations. In this sense, the hoard provides vital information for the western monetary circulation of the Roman Empire, contributing to the debate on Gallic and African imitations. It also opens the way to the hypothesis that Hispania may have been another centre for issuing Divo Claudio imitations. Although the latter remains to be proven, the tentative and open nature of this book provides the opportunity to open new lines of study in the hope that they will be resolved sooner rather than later.
El tesoro de Regina Turdulorum (Casas de Reina, Badajoz) se compone de 818 antoninianos de imitación, fundamentalmente del tipo Divo Claudio, acuñados en cobre. La inmensa mayoría de las monedas tiene en el reverso la característica leyenda CONSECRATIO. Esta cifra convierte al tesoro de Regina Turdulorum como de los más importantes en España y Portugal. A nivel numismático, la tipología de reverso más común es la de pira funeraria, frente a la de águila. Junto a este principal grupo se añade otro segundo, donde hay curiosas imitaciones que siguen varios prototipos para la confección de los reversos. El lector debe ser consciente que el estudio de las acuñaciones póstumas de Claudio II y sus imitaciones representa una de las tareas más complejas en numismática antigua. La labor se complica considerablemente por el hecho de ser monedas muy copiadas, de tal modo que las emisiones regulares son muy difíciles de distinguir de las imitaciones. En este sentido, el tesoro aporta una información vital para la circulación monetaria occidental del Imperio Romano, contribuyendo al debate de las imitaciones galas y africanas. Y abriendo paso a la hipótesis de que Hispania posiblemente fue otro centro emisor de imitaciones divoclaudianas. Aunque esto último estaría por demostrarse, el carácter provisional y abierto de este libro brinda la oportunidad de abrir nuevas líneas de estudio, con la esperanza de que se resuelvan más pronto que tarde.
David Martínez Chico es un historiador, arqueólogo y numismático, así como fundador y director editorial desde 2014 de Revista Numismática Hécate. Anteriormente, en 2008, fundó plataformas numismáticas como Foro Imperio Numismático, consciente de la importancia en la difusión y transferencia de conocimientos en su campo.
Conversations in Human Evolution is an ongoing science communication initiative seeking to explore the breadth and interdisciplinarity of human evolution studies. This volume reports another twenty interviews (referred to as ‘conversations’ as they are informal in style) with scholars at the forefront of human evolution research, covering the broad scientific themes of Palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology and biological anthropology, earth science and palaeoclimatic change, evolutionary anthropology and primatology, and human disease co-evolution. This project features academics at various different stages in their careers and from all over the world; in this volume alone, researchers are based at institutions in eleven different countries (namely Iran, India, the United Kingdom, Greece, Australia, South Africa, the United States of America, the Netherlands, Germany, France and Israel), covering five continents.
Having arisen at the start of the COVID19 pandemic, Conversations in Human Evolution aims to encourage engagement with both human evolutionary studies and the broader socio-political issues that persist within academia, the latter of which is particularly pertinent during this time of global uncertainty. The conversations delve deeply into the study of our species’ evolutionary history through the lens of each sub-discipline, as well as detailing some of the most current advances in research, theory and methods. Overall, Conversations in Human Evolution seeks to bridge the gap between the research and researcher through contextualisation of the science with personal experience and historical reflection.
About the Editor
Lucy Timbrell is a PhD researcher in the Archaeology of Human Origins Research Group at the University of Liverpool, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, The Leakey Foundation and the Lithic Studies Society. Broadly, she is interested in the evolution of modern human diversity, with her doctoral research focussing on quantifying the population structure of early Homo sapiens in Late-Middle Pleistocene Africa. Alongside her PhD research, she organises the widely-known University of Liverpool Evolutionary Anthropology seminar series.
Toniná was a Mayan city, located between two cultural areas near the Chiapas Highlands. It has been widely proposed that the Maya collapse implied the disappearance and depopulation of many cities; this research addresses the survival of Toniná towards the threshold of the Postclassic. For this purpose, 15,956 human bones found in Structure 15 of the fifth platform in the Acropolis of Toniná were analysed. The analysis of anthropological osteology allowed us to know the biological profile and to document the cultural taphonomy, through which the practice of human sacrifice and the posthumous treatment of the victims was evidenced. The application of stable isotope and strontium analyses also allowed us to determine the dietary profile of those sacrificed, their geographical origin and mobility throughout their lives. A change in ritual practices in the Mayan area was glimpsed, as ideological influences were found, possibly from the Gulf Coast in the cult of other deities, as in the case of Xipe Totéc; the Gulf Coast had great influence in the Mayan area since ancient times and this has been confirmed at this site through ceramics.
Toniná fue una ciudad maya, localizada entre dos áreas culturales hacia los Altos de Chiapas. Se ha planteado de manera generalizada que el colapso maya implicó la desaparición y despoblamiento de muchas ciudades; en esta investigación se aborda la pervivencia de Toniná hacia el umbral del Posclásico. Para ello se analizaron 15 956 huesos humanos hallados en la Estructura 15 de la quinta plataforma en la Acrópolis de Toniná. El análisis de osteología antropológica permitío conocer el perfil biológico y documentar la tafonomía cultural, a través de la cual se evidenció la práctica del sacrificio humano y los tratamientos póstumos de las víctimas. Así también la aplicación de análisis de isótopos estables y de estroncio permitió conocer el perfil dietario de los sacrificados, su origen geográfico y movilidad a lo largo de su vida. Se vislumbró un cambio en las prácticas rituales en el área maya, al encontrar influencias ideológicas posiblemente de la Costa del Golfo en el culto a otras deidades, es el caso de Xipe Totéc; la Costa del Golfo tuvo gran influencia en el área maya desde tiempos remotos y se ha constatado en este sitio a través de la cerámica.
Judith L. Ruiz González: Antropóloga Física por la ENAH, estudios de Maestría y Doctorado en el Posgrado de Estudios Mesoamericanos, UNAM. Líneas de interés académico. 1) Condiciones de vida y salud en poblaciones esqueléticas y en restos momificados prehispánicos y coloniales. 2) Paleopatología y perspectivas bioarqueológicas en Mesoamérica. 3) Diversidad dietaria y movilidad humana a través de estudios bioarquemétricos en poblaciones antiguas. 4) Evidencias de sacrificio humano y tratamientos rituales póstumos del cuerpo en Mesoamérica. Ha participado en diferentes proyectos de investigación de la Dirección de Estudios Arqueológicos del INAH, de la Zona Arqueológica de Tlatelolco, INAH, del Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas y del Instituto de Geología de la UNAM. Es profesora de Asignatura en el Centro de Estudios Antropológicos, Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales, UNAM. Protecyo de investigacion reciente: Interacciones culturales y dinámicas poblacionales desde la Costa veracruzana al interior: isotopía de la dieta e historia residencial.
White Castle: The evaluation of an upstanding prehistoric enclosure in East Lothian describes the results of a four year research programme of archaeological works between 2010 and 2013, at the later prehistoric enclosure of White Castle, East Lothian, carried out under the auspices of the Rampart Scotland project. The site is a Scheduled Monument, but, despite being subject of mapping and survey for some 200 years, it has never been examined by excavation prior to the Rampart Scotland project’s interventions. White Castle was the first of the series of comparable sites to be excavated in the Lammermuir area. The programme of archaeological evaluation and sequence of radiometric dates furnished evidence for four major phases of activity at White Castle – with the main enclosure period dating to the second half of the first millennium BC. The excavations demonstrated a clear sequence of enclosure development over time, whereby the design and visual impact often appeared to be more important than defence alone. White Castle’s location on the main route through the Lammermuirs with surrounding upland pasture is also highly suggestive to its function and it seems probable that the site’s economy was concerned primarily with controlling access to grazing. The final phase of the prehistoric enclosure appears to combine two key factors: impressing visitors and stock control. While maintenance of White Castle’s enclosure system was abandoned in the closing centuries BC, it is unlikely that the area was deserted and there is also limited evidence for two later phases of activity on site around the Medieval and Early Modern Periods.
About the Authors:
David Connolly MCIfA, FSA Scot has had a long career in archaeology since 1981. Being one of the pioneers of buildings archaeology, land survey and a qualified drone pilot, he is always at the forefront of developing new techniques of archaeological recording. He is also the creator of the successful Archaeology Skills Passport scheme. Since 1999, David devotes his time to running British Archaeological Jobs Resource (BAJR) and its fieldwork arm, CHC Heritage, participating in varied worldwide commercial and research/training projects, including Rampart Scotland. ;
Dr Murray Cook, MA Hons, MCIfA FSA Scot is Stirling Council’s Archaeologist, an Honorary Research Fellow at Stirling University, as well as teaching a course on Stirling at Forth Valley College. As co-director of Rampart Scotland, he also runs regular training digs and is the author of three popular books on Stirling: The Anvil of Scottish History, Digging into Stirling’s Past and Bannockburn and Stirling Bridge: Exploring Scotland’s Two Greatest Battles. ;
Hana Kdolska MA, MSc is a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, gaining practical experience working as a field archaeologist for a number of large commercial units in the UK. As part of Rampart Scotland’s team, she has supervised multiple research excavations across Scotland. Since 2015 she has participated and run archaeological projects in the UK and the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (UAE). In 2020, she joined BAJR and CHC Heritage as a co-director.
Current Perspectives in Sudanese and Nubian Archaeology brings together papers presented at the 2nd Sudan Studies Research Conference, held at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge. Scholars from various institutions around the world gathered to discuss the most recent trends in the field of Sudanese and Nubian archaeology, ranging from recent fieldwork in Sudan to scientific analysis of material culture and current theoretical approaches. The papers collected here focus on early administrative and mortuary material culture in the Nile valley and adjacent areas; religious beliefs and practices at Kerma; the adoption and local use of imported objects in the New Kingdom colonial period; and the role of Sudan and East Africa in human population history. Together, all papers represent the diversity of current approaches to the archaeology of Sudan and Nubia in various periods.
About the Author
Rennan Lemos is an ERC postdoctoral research fellow at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München. He recently completed his PhD in Egyptian and Sudanese archaeology at the University of Cambridge, specialising in mortuary material culture in New Kingdom Nubia. ;
Samantha Tipper is a senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln. She is a bioarchaeologist and paleopathologist with experience working in both the commercial and academic sectors in human osteology, paleopathology and forensic anthropology.
Current Research in Egyptology 2019 presents the papers and posters from the twentieth meeting of the prestigious international student Egyptology conference, on this occasion held at the University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. The conference took place 17–21 June 2019 at the Major College of San Ildefonso, the historic centre of the University of Alcalá, with almost 200 participants from various countries and institutions all over the world. The conference addressed a wide range of topics including all periods of ancient Egyptian History and different aspects of its material culture, archaeology, history, society, religion and language. Fifteen wide-ranging papers are published here with wider information on the scientific and cultural programme of the conference.
About the Editors
Marta Arranz holds a master’s degree in archaeology and heritage from the Autónoma University of Madrid, and she is a doctoral candidate in Egyptology at the University of Alcalá. ;
Raúl Sánchez Casado obtained a PhD in Egyptology at the University of Seville; he is a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Granada. ;
Albert Planelles Orozco completed a master´s degree in ancient cultures and languages at the University of Barcelona; he is currently working on his PhD in Assyriology at the University of Alcalá. ;
Sergio Alarcón Robledo holds an MPhil in Egyptology at the University of Cambridge and an MA in archaeology from the University of California, Los Angeles; he is a PhD candidate in Egyptology at Harvard University. ;
Jónatan Ortiz García completed his PhD in Cultural Heritage at the University of Valencia; he is a Juan de la Cierva postdoctoral fellow at the University of Alcalá. ;
Patricia Mora Riudavets completed an MA in Egyptology at the University of Liverpool. She is a professional archaeological photographer.
Discurso, espacio y poder en las religiones antiguas aims to reflect on how the wielders of power, be they religious, social or political, shape the discourses that justify their power within the framework of a society or a specific group, and how space participates in these discourses. Intellectuals, aristocrats, holy men or even the dead all needed to shape a discourse that would allow them to justify their hierarchies, whether they were internal or common to all of society, to reach a social consensus and to sustain them over time. The forms in which power used religion to express itself were quite diverse, such as ritual violence, martyrdom, sacrifice, or even divine trickery. Sometimes certain spaces became places whose political and religious control brought about conflicts, whose resolution was found through the legitimisation generated by the complex theological discourse, which reinforced the extraordinary qualities of the gods to reaffirm their authority, or through the cohesive value of the rites. This volume analyses these questions through fourteen works by sixteen researchers from different institutions. It includes studies carried out with materials from a wide range of sources: epigraphy, the archaeological record, and literary sources.
About the Editors
Rafael A. Barroso-Romero is a doctoral researcher at the Max-Weber-Kolleg, Universität Erfürt and at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, where he lectures as a member of the Department of Ancient History. He is currently developing his doctoral research on materiality, spatiality, and the body in unusual burials in the Roman West. ;
José Ángel Castillo Lozano completed his Doctorate in History at the Universidad de Murcia. He is currently a High School teacher. His area of specialisation lies in the world of Late Antiquity, on which he has published around fifteen papers.
Discurso, espacio y poder en las religiones antiguas pretende reflexionar acerca de cómo el poder da forma a los discursos que lo justifican en el marco de una sociedad o de un grupo concreto y cómo el espacio participa de aquellos. Intelectuales, aristócratas, hombres santos o incluso los difuntos, todos ellos necesitaron configurar un discurso que permitiera justificar sus jerarquías −ya fueran internas o comunes a toda la sociedad− consensuarlas socialmente y sustentarlas en el tiempo. Las formas en las que el poder utilizaba a la religión para expresarse fueron muy diversas, como la violencia ritual, el martirio, el sacrificio, o incluso el engaño divino. A veces, determinados espacios se convirtieron en lugares cuyo control político y religioso generaba conflictos, cuya solución se encontró en la legitimación generada por el complejo discurso teológico, que refuerza las cualidades extraordinarias de los dioses para reafirmar su autoridad, o por el valor cohesivo de los ritos. Este volumen analiza tales cuestiones a través de catorce trabajos de dieciséis investigadores procedentes de diversos centros. Recoge investigaciones realizadas con materiales de muy diversa procedencia: la epigrafía, el registro arqueológico o las fuentes literarias.
Rafael A. Barroso-Romero es Graduado en Historia (UCO) y Máster en Ciencias de las Religiones (UCM). Actualmente es investigador predoctoral en el Max-Weber-Kolleg (IGS “Resonant Self- World Relations in Ancient and Modern Socio-Religious Practices”) de la Universität Erfürt y al mismo tiempo en la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, donde imparte docencia como miembro del Departamento de Prehistoria, Historia Antigua y Arqueología. ;
José A. Castillo-Lozano (1991) es graduado en Historia en la Universidad de Murcia. En la actualidad es profesor de secundaria (funcionario de carrera) y doctor en historia. Su ámbito de especialización radica en el mundo de la Antigüedad Tardía del cual ha publicado un
Professor Challenger and his Lost Neolithic World combines the two great passions of the author’s life: reconstructing the Neolithic mind and constructively challenging consensus in his professional domain. The book is semi-autobiographical, charting the author’s investigation of Alexander Thom’s theories, in particular regarding the alignment of prehistoric monuments in the landscape, across a number of key Neolithic sites from Kintraw to Stonehenge and finally Orkney. It maps his own perspective of the changing reception to Thom’s ideas by the archaeological profession from initial curiosity and acceptance to increasing scepticism. The text presents historical summaries of the various strands of evidence from key Neolithic sites across the UK and Ireland with the compelling evidence from the Ness of Brodgar added as an appendix in final justification of his approach to the subject.
About the Author Euan W. MacKie (1936-2020), was a British archaeologist who graduated with a degree in Archaeology and Anthropology from St John’s College, Cambridge in 1959. He excavated at the Mayan site of Xunantunich in 1959-60 and was then employed at the British Museum Department of Ethnography before becoming Curator and Keeper of Archaeology and Anthropology at the Hunterian Museum at the University of Glasgow where he later obtained his PhD. His principal research areas were the brochs and vitrified forts of the Scottish Iron Age, and archaeoastronomy – the investigation of the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric cultures.
'History matters, and this comprehensive volume sheds light not just on the particular period covered but on how its legacy lives on in colouring our view of archaeoastronomy today.'—Liz Henty (2021): British Archaeology
'...a richly illustrated account of an important, but much marginalised debate within archaeology and, as such, of great historiographical value.'—Kenneth Brophy (2021): Journal of Skyscape Archaeology, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/jsa.22278
“Los animales enseñaron el camino…”: La fauna de la Sierra Gorda queretana a través de sus representaciones cerámicas arqueológicas examines the past fauna of the Sierra Gorda region of Mexico, and its representation in archaeological ceramics. Queretaro's Sierra Gorda was declared a “Biosphere Reserve” on May 19, 1997, by presidential decree. As a natural area thus protected, there are almost 400,000 hectares of great biodiversity, in which there are at least 15 types and subtypes of different vegetation, more than 1800 species of plants, 124 of fungi and 550 species of vertebrates, among other elements that prove the natural wealth of the region. As part of the "Northern Archaeological Project of the State of Querétaro, Mexico" (PANQ), the book presents ceramic representations of the fauna of the region, relating them to the oral traditions that the inhabitants of the region have preserved until now. In so doing it demonstrates the deep interdependence of humans and animals, and analyses wider cultural interconnections across Mesoamerica. The book goes on to analyze some of these Mesoamerican cultural traits, although its main goal is to highlight the archaeological evidence that has been recovered by the project since 1990 in this still little-known region of ancient Mexico.
About the Authors
María Teresa Muñoz Espinosa is Professor of Archaeology at the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Since 1990 she has led the Proyecto Arqueológico Norte del Estado de Querétaro, and has published extensively on the region. ;
José Carlos Castañeda-Reyes, a historian and archaeologist, is Professor at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana campus Iztapalapa.
Spanish Description: “Los animales enseñaron el camino…” La fauna de la Sierra Gorda queretana a través de sus representaciones cerámicas arqueológicas by María Teresa Muñoz Espinosa and José Carlos Castañeda Reyes La Sierra Gorda queretana fue declarada “Reserva de la Biosfera” el 19 de mayo de 1997, por decreto presidencial. Como área natural así protegida, son casi 400 000 hectáreas de gran biodiversidad, en las que habitan al menos 15 tipos y subtipos de vegetación diferente, más de 1800 especies de plantas, 124 de hongos y 550 especies de vertebrados, entre otros elementos que comprueban la riqueza natural de la región. Como parte del desarrollo del “Proyecto Arqueológico del Norte del Estado de Querétaro, México” (PANQ), hemos localizado diversos testimonios que muestran ejemplos de la fauna del pasado, que además forma parte de algunas tradiciones orales que conservan los habitantes de la región hasta nuestros días. En el libro analizamos algunos de estos rasgos culturales mesoamericanos, si bien nos interesa resaltar primordialmente los testimonios arqueológicos que se han recuperado por el proyecto que desde 1990 viene desarrollándose en esta región, todavía poco conocida, del México antiguo.
María Teresa Muñoz Espinosa. Arqueóloga. Egresada de la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (Licenciatura en Arqueología) y de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Maestría en Historia del Arte y Doctorado en Estudios Mesoamericanos). Candidata al grado de Doctor en estudios Mesoamericanos por la UNAM. Profesor-Investigador de tiempo completo de la Dirección de Estudios Arqueológicos del INAH. Directora del Proyecto Arqueológico Norte del Estado de Querétaro, México, desde 1990. ;
Jose Carlos Castañeda Reyes. Mexicano. Historiador y arqueólogo. Egresado de la Escuela Normal Superior de México, de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y de la Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Estudios de Maestría y Doctorado en Estudios de Asia y Africa, especialidad Medio Oriente (Historia antigua) por El Colegio de México. Profesor-investigador en el Departamento de Filosofía. Area de Historia del Estado y de la Sociedad, Universidad Autónoma Metr