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White Castle: The Evaluation of an Upstanding Prehistoric Enclosure in East Lothian
Author: David Connolly, Murray Cook and Hana Kdolska. Paperback; 203x276mm; 108 pages; 42 figures, 8 tables (colour throughout). 134 2021. Available both in print and Open Access. Printed ISBN 9781789699302. Epublication ISBN 9781789699319.
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White Castle: The evaluation of an upstanding prehistoric enclosure in East Lothian describes the results of a four year research programme of archaeological works between 2010 and 2013, at the later prehistoric enclosure of White Castle, East Lothian, carried out under the auspices of the Rampart Scotland project. The site is a Scheduled Monument, but, despite being subject of mapping and survey for some 200 years, it has never been examined by excavation prior to the Rampart Scotland project’s interventions. White Castle was the first of the series of comparable sites to be excavated in the Lammermuir area. The programme of archaeological evaluation and sequence of radiometric dates furnished evidence for four major phases of activity at White Castle – with the main enclosure period dating to the second half of the first millennium BC. The excavations demonstrated a clear sequence of enclosure development over time, whereby the design and visual impact often appeared to be more important than defence alone. White Castle’s location on the main route through the Lammermuirs with surrounding upland pasture is also highly suggestive to its function and it seems probable that the site’s economy was concerned primarily with controlling access to grazing. The final phase of the prehistoric enclosure appears to combine two key factors: impressing visitors and stock control. While maintenance of White Castle’s enclosure system was abandoned in the closing centuries BC, it is unlikely that the area was deserted and there is also limited evidence for two later phases of activity on site around the Medieval and Early Modern Periods.

About the Authors:
David Connolly MCIfA, FSA Scot has had a long career in archaeology since 1981. Being one of the pioneers of buildings archaeology, land survey and a qualified drone pilot, he is always at the forefront of developing new techniques of archaeological recording. He is also the creator of the successful Archaeology Skills Passport scheme. Since 1999, David devotes his time to running British Archaeological Jobs Resource (BAJR) and its fieldwork arm, CHC Heritage, participating in varied worldwide commercial and research/training projects, including Rampart Scotland. ;

Dr Murray Cook, MA Hons, MCIfA FSA Scot is Stirling Council’s Archaeologist, an Honorary Research Fellow at Stirling University, as well as teaching a course on Stirling at Forth Valley College. As co-director of Rampart Scotland, he also runs regular training digs and is the author of three popular books on Stirling: The Anvil of Scottish History, Digging into Stirling’s Past and Bannockburn and Stirling Bridge: Exploring Scotland’s Two Greatest Battles. ;

Hana Kdolska MA, MSc is a graduate of the University of Edinburgh, gaining practical experience working as a field archaeologist for a number of large commercial units in the UK. As part of Rampart Scotland’s team, she has supervised multiple research excavations across Scotland. Since 2015 she has participated and run archaeological projects in the UK and the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah (UAE). In 2020, she joined BAJR and CHC Heritage as a co-director.


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