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Sharma
Un entrepôt de commerce medieval sur la côte du Ḥaḍramawt (Yémen, ca 980-1180) edited by Axelle Rougeulle. xxii + 559 pages; illustrated throughout in colour and black & white. French text throughout. 173 2015 British Foundation for the Study of Arabia Monographs (formerly Society for Arabian Studies Monographs) 17. Available both in printed and e-versions. Printed ISBN 9781784911942. Epublication ISBN 9781784911959.
Book contents page
Cited by al-Muqaddasī in c.985 and then by al-Idrīsī in c.1150, the medieval port of Sharma was discovered in 1996 at the extremity of the Ra's Sharma, 50km east of al-Shiḥr on the Ḥaḍramawt coast of Yemen; it was excavated in 2001-2005. This unique site was actually a transit entrepôt, a cluster of warehouses probably founded by Iranian merchants and entirely devoted to the maritime trade. It knew a rather short period of activity, between around 980 and the second half of the 12th century, which may be acknowledged as the Sharma horizon. Excavations proved that this settlement experienced six occupation phases, which are closely related to the political and economic developments in the region at that time. The material is mainly transit merchandises, small objects, resins, glass and pottery; some of the ceramics were locally made, in the nearby kilns of Yaḍghaṭ, but most (70%) were imported, from all parts of the Indian Ocean from China to East Africa. The typo-chronological study of this closed assemblage brings very precise information on the dating and evolution of the various types recorded, and the historical analyse sheds new light on the history of the Islamic maritime trade in the 10th to 12th centuries.

French description:
Mentionné par al-Muqaddasī vers 985 puis par al-Idrīsī vers 1150, le port médiéval de Sharma a été découvert en 1996 à l’extrémité du Ra’s Sharma, à 50 km à l’est de la ville d’al-Shiḥr sur la côte du Ḥaḍramawt au Yémen ; il a fait l’objet de quatre campagnes de fouilles en 2001-2005. Ce site unique était en fait un entrepôt de transit, probablement fondé par des marchands iraniens et entièrement consacré au commerce maritime. Il connut un brève période d’activité entre ca 980 et la seconde moitié du XIIe siècle, que l’on peut appeler l’horizon Sharma. Les fouilles ont montré que l’entrepôt avait connu 6 phases chronologiques, qui reflètent étroitement l’évolution politico-économique de la région à cette époque. Le matériel mis au jour représente essentiellement les vestiges de marchandises en transit, petits objets, résines aromatiques, verreries et céramiques ; un tiers du corpus céramique est d’origine locale, produit dans les fours proches de Yaḍghaṭ, le reste est importé, de toutes les régions riveraines de l’océan Indien depuis la Chine jusqu’à l’Afrique orientale. L’étude chrono-typologique de cet ensemble clos apporte des informations précises sur la datation et l’évolution des divers types répertoriés, et l’analyse historique éclaire d’un jour nouveau l’histoire du commerce maritime musulman aux Xe-XIIe siècles.



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