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The Gresham Ship Project A 16th-Century Merchantman Wrecked in the Princes Channel, Thames Estuary Volume I: Excavation and Hull Studies edited by Jens Auer and Thijs J. Maarleveld with contributions by Massimiliano Ditta, Antony Firth, Nigel Nayling, Delia Ní Chíobháin, Christian Thomsen, and Cate Wagstaffe. iv+109 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. BAR 602 2014. ISBN 9781407312101. £28.00. Book contents pageBuy Now

Sometime in the late 16th century an armed merchantman foundered in the Thames Estuary. Forgotten for over four centuries, it was rediscovered in 2003 during an operation by the Port of London Authority to clear a navigational hazard from the Princes Channel. Wessex Archaeology, called in by the PLA, recovered five sections of the ship’s hull and four cannons, as well as numerous artefacts.

With only a few sites studied in detail, our knowledge of 16th century shipbuilding in England is still limited. The well-preserved wreck of the Gresham Ship – so named after the founder of one of the cannons – presents an excellent opportunity to study the construction of a merchant vessel from this period. In addition, the wreck is currently the only archaeological example of a remedial procedure for unstable ships, otherwise known only from documentary sources. This procedure, called ‘furring’, increases the breadth of the hull by removing the planking, adding timbers to the existing frames and re-planking.

This volume, the first of two on the Gresham Ship, gives a detailed account of the sections of the wreck recovered and describes the work of researchers at the University of Southern Denmark in their analysis of the hull and of the armament. Volume II will deal with the studies undertaken at the University College London of the ship’s context and contents.

This volume is the fourth of a series of NAS monographs. Others previously published are The Sound of Mull Archaeological Project, Records of Traditional Watercraft from South and West Sri Lanka and The Hulks of Forton Lake, Gosport.
A Social Topography of the Commote of Caerwedros in Ceredigion within its Regional Context during the Sixteenth Century by G. Lynn Morgan. xxvi+151 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. BAR 601 2014. ISBN 9781407312934. £29.00. Book contents pageBuy Now

The author was inspired to embark on this work by her own sense of Welsh identity and by her surrounding landscape in south-west Ceredigion. In this interdisciplinary research the author defines the historical geography of the commote of Caerwedros by retroactive analysis, relating the area’s social topography and structure to the political and economic dynamics of Welsh culture from the later Middle Ages to the 16th century, including its ancient territorial units (tref and rhandir).

Part of this is the religious landscape represented by medieval stone churches gracing Ceredigion’s coastal rim and the role of important religious houses of founded in the 12th century, especially the Cistercian Abbey of Whitland, whose farms are recorded in charters of the Lord Rhys of Deheubarth. These are mapped within the framework of three granges in the commote.

The 15th and 16th centuries saw the emergence of a largely indigenous gentry class as primary controllers of the land and the study tracks the genealogies and family inter-relationships of prominent local families within local community landscapes. Alongside this is an analysis of Welsh place names aimed at increasing our understanding of the social evolution of land ownership and management, within the context of farming communities in the cultural landscape of 16th century south-west Ceredigion.
A Study of Lower Palaeolithic Stone Artefacts from Selected Sites in the Upper and Middle Thames Valley, with Particular Reference to the R. J. MacRae Collection by Hyeong Woo Lee. 223 pages, numerous tables, figures and illustrations. BAR 319 2001. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841712140. £18.00. Buy Now

A wide-ranging study covering the significance of the Lower Palaeolithic lithic tool traditions usually referred to as Early, Middle and Late Acheulian and Clactonian. The work (concentrating on selected sites from the Upper and Middle Thames Valley) includes sections devoted to the interpretation of significant patterns of artefact manufacture and use and the question of the procurement and economic use of lithic raw material. Special emphasis is given to lithic styles and technology, recurrent morphological patterns within stone tool assemblages, and the effect of the varying distances between occupation sites and the lithic raw material sources.
Images of Piety The iconography of traditional religion in late medieval Wales by Madeleine Gray. 174 pages, 67 pages of illustrations, index. BAR 316 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841712086. £18.00. Buy Now

An interesting and unusual work on a little-explored field of study. By means of the iconographic evidence, the author aims to provide a counterbalance to the traditional studies of medieval welsh piety with their heavy emphasis on poetic material. There are interesting and suggestive divergences between the ideas communicated by literary evidence and those suggested by the surviving visual culture. In considering the importance of visual imagery as evidence for religious beliefs, the part played by imagery in the formation and reinforcement of a distinctive spirituality is not ignored. The work concentrates on surviving images from the ‘golden century’, but patterns of destruction and preservation are identified, including rare works lost through poverty and neglect.
The Excavation of a Romano-British Shrine at Orton's Pasture, Rocester, Staffordshire by I.M. Ferris, L. Bevan and R. Cuttler with contributors. 97 pages, 34 figures, 15 tables, 16 plates. BAR 314 2000 Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit Monograph Series 3. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841712051. £18.00. Buy Now

A summary of rescue excavations at the Romano-British Shrine site at Rocester, Staffordshire, dating from the late first to mid-second centuries AD. Parts of two enclosures identified as being associated with the adjacent Roman fort complex were also dug, and pits revealed several unusual finds, including an altar fragment. A small, stone building in one of the enclosures has been identified as a shrine.
Severn Valley Ware Production at Newland Hopfields Excavation of a Romano-British kiln site at North End Farm, Great Malvern, Worcestershire in 1992 and 1994 by C. Jane Evans, Laurence Jones and Peter Ellis. 88 pages, 47 figures, 8 plates. BAR 313 2000 Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit Monograph Series 2. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841712043. £18.00. Buy Now

This report presents the results of two campaigns of Romano-British archaeological work at Newland Hopfields, and makes a significant contribution to studies at a local, regional, and national level. This is not only the first Severn Valley ware production site to be explored in such detail, but it is also one of the few Romano-British pottery production sites generally for which this level of information has been gathered.
The Reception of Classical Art in Britain An Oxford story of plaster casts from the Antique by Donna Kurtz. 472 pages, 150 illustrations.. BAR 308 2000 Beazley Archive - Studies in the History of Collections 1. Only available as e-version. ISBN 184171092X. £18.00. Buy Now

The first volume in the series Studies in the History of Collections, this work places archaeology, history of art, and British antiquarianism in the wider context of Europe’s cultural heritage. The Story focuses on antique sculpture, the principal type of classical art known to artists, collectors and scholars from the Renaissance until the later nineteenth century. Includes a complete catalogue of the Ashmolean Museum’s casts and a fascinating Chronological Chart.
Northern Pasts Interpretations of the Later Prehistory of Northern England and Southern Scotland edited by Jan Harding and Robert Johnston. 176 pages, numerous line drawings and photographs.. BAR 302 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710660. £18.00. Buy Now

This volume, the product of a weekend conference hosted by the Department of Archaeology at the University of Newcastle in 1998, represents an attempt to further the debate about the present state of later prehistoric research across northern England and southern Scotland. Contents include: PART I Introduction: the past, present and future of later prehistory in northern England and southern Scotland: Jan Harding From coast to vale, moor to dale: patterns in later prehistory; Paul Frodsham Worlds without ends: towards a new prehistory for Central Britain PART II New perspectives on the later prehistory of northern England and southern Scotland: Clive Waddington The Neolithic that never happened?; Kenneth Brophy Wet Drybridge: a cursus in Ayrshire; Robert Johnston Dying, becoming and being the field: prehistoric cairnfields in Northumberland; Robert Young Continuity and change: marginality and later prehistoric settlement in the northern uplands; Peter Halkon & Martin Millett The Foulness Valley- investigation of an Iron Age landscape lowland East Yorkshire; Alicia Wise Late prehistoric settlement and society: recent research in the central Tweed valley; PART III Regional approaches to the later prehistory of northern England and southern Scotland: Blaise Vyner Lost horizons: the location of activity in the later Neolithic and early Bronze Age in north-east England; Ron Cowell The Neolithic and Bronze Age in the lowlands of North West England; Mike McCarthy Prehistoric settlement in northern Cumbria; Bill Bevan Peak Practice: whatever happened to the Iron Age in the southern Pennines?; Derek Alexander Later prehistoric settlement in west central Scotland; Dave Cowley Site morphology and regional variation in the later prehistoric settlement of south-west Scotland.
Sheaths and Scabbards in England AD400-1000 by Esther A. Cameron. 237 pages, 80 figures & photographs.. BAR 301 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710652. £18.00. Buy Now

Anglo-Saxon swords have always attracted scholarly attention. However, the almost intangible nature of Anglo-Saxon sheath and scabbard remains has meant that the most basic questions relating to their construction, places of manufacture, origins, status and stylistic development have gone largely unanswered. It is an aim of this work to redress the balance by examining sheaths and scabbards as composite objects, separate from blades, and to describe and classify them. In this book the archaeological context of sheaths/scabbards is described and new evidence of Anglo-Saxon leather-working recorded.
Human Ecology and Neolithic Transition in Eastern County Donegal, Ireland The Lough Swilly Archaeological Survey by Michael Kimball. 86 pages, maps, line drawings and photographs.. BAR 300 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710644. £18.00. Buy Now

In 1995 the author conducted an archaeological survey within a 296 km2 region in eastern county Donegal, Ireland, which resulted in an investigation of the transition from Ireland’s Mesolithic to the Neolithic from a regional-scale perspective in a part of Ireland with no history of systematic field collections. A hypothesis for settlement, raw material economy and subsistence during the Later Mesolithic and Neolithic is proposed.
The Late Roman Transition in the North Papers from the Roman Archaeology Conference, Durham 1999 by Tony Wilmott and Pete Wilson. 94 pages, 34 figures: maps, line drawings and photographs.. BAR 299 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710636. £18.00. Buy Now

The wish of the editors was to bring together a number of individuals who had worked on evidence for the late Roman transition in north Britain in order to compare results, and to attempt to identify common ground, differences, and potential approaches for future research. In order to cover a range of views on the subject, the speakers included excavators (Ferris, Jones, Wilmott and Wilson), specialists in the areas of finds, ceramics, and environmental studies (Cool, Evans, Huntley and Stallibrass), and academics with a specialist interest in the late Roman transition (Dark and Esmonde-Cleary). The area studied is bisected by a national boundary, on each side of which archaeological agendas with different emphases are pursued, and the subject has been seen either as the end of the concern of the Romanist or the beginning of the concern of the medievalist. It is only in relatively recent years that the transition has been recognised widely as a separate study in its own right for which it is necessary to deploy evidence from a great variety of specialisms. As the papers presented here largely represent summaries of work in progress or overviews of work to date they are intended to provoke debate and hopefully act as a springboard for new work, both by the authors and others. Contents include: Transforming an Elite: Reinterpreting Late Roman Binchester by Iain Ferris and Rick Jones; The late Roman transition at Birdoswald and on Hadrian’s Wall by Tony Wilmott; Cataractonium (Catterick): The end of a Roman town? by Pete WilsonCoin Supply in the North in the late Roman period by R J Brickstock; The End of Roman Pottery in the North by Jeremy Evans; The parts left over: material culture into the fifth century by H E M Cool; Late Roman Transition in the North: the Palynological Evidence by Jacqueline P Huntley; How little we know, and how much there is to learn: what can animal and human bones tell us about the late Roman transition in northern England? by Sue Stallibrass;The Late Roman Transition in the North: a discussion Ken Dark; Summing Up Simon Esmonde Cleary.
Hadrian’s Wall: Some Aspects of its Post-Roman Influence on the Landscape by Alan Michael Whitworth. 133 pages, 78 figures. BAR 296 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710539. £18.00. Buy Now

The book explores what has happened to the Hadrian Wall in the post-Roman period; it examines the various types of buildings and structures that have re-used the Wall stone in their fabric, place-name evidence, ancient maps, estate deeds and plans, antiquarian writers and travelers as well as modern archaeological research.
Saxon Settlement and Earlier Remains at Friars Oak, Hassocks, West Sussex by Chris Butler. 81 pages, 29 illustrations. BAR 295 2000. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710520. £18.00. Buy Now

Report on rescue excavations that took place in 1994 on a construction site of a golf course, at Friars Oak, on the northern edge of Hassocks in West Sussex. The area was divided into three parts: a Sunken Feature Building, pits a ditch and a possible post hole building (site A); waterlogged features, wooden trackway and a Roman road (site B); a single post hole structure (site C).
A Landscape Archaeological Study of  the Mesolithic-Neolithic in the Milfield Basin, Northumberland by Clive Waddington. 238 pages, 100 figures, b/w photographs. BAR 291 1999. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710342. £18.00. Buy Now

This book deals with the post-glacial Stone-Age human inhabitants who were populating the Milfield basin in today’s Northumberland, and the evolution of land-use, settlement, ideology and the changing nature of people’s relationship with the natural world. A wide range of methodologies and fieldwork projects have been employed. The result is a contribution to archaeological knowledge by way of new fieldwork practices, the development of an interpretative scheme for fieldwalking lithic data and the construction of a detailed synthesis for the Milfield area.
The Palaeolithic of the Hampshire Basin A regional model of hominid behaviour during the Middle Pleistocene by Robert Hosfield. 218 pages, numerous illustrations, CD containing colour images discussed in text. BAR 286 1999. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710237. £18.00. Buy Now

The book explores the potential of geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to reduce the difficulties encountered while dealing with vast lithic data from the British Lower and Middle Palaeolithic and support analysis and interpretation of all the available archaeological evidence. The topics discussed are spatial modelling of the industrial landscape and long-term modelling of hominid behaviour.
Archaeology in Bath: Excavations 1984-1989 by Peter Davenport and contributors. 168 pages, numerous illustrations, b/w photographs, tables. BAR 284 1999 Bath Archaeological Trust 0. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710075. £18.00. Buy Now

Detailed reports of excavations on four sites in Bath: Bath Street, Beau Street, at the Cross Bath and Julian Road, undertaken by Bath Archaeological Trust between 1984 and 1989. Earliest finds date to the Mesolithic time. Roman period starts with early Flavian occupation which can be followed through to the Late Roman Period. Evidence of a major re-planning of a part of the town was discovered in the late Antonine period. Further changes to the town planning have been found dated to the late Saxon period.
Mesolithic Northern England Environment, population and Settlement by Penny Spikins. 150 pages, with numerous drawings and photographs. BAR 283 1999. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841710067. £18.00. Buy Now

Focusing on evidence from northern England, this book addresses the idea of gradual population increase and related concepts of Mesolithic settlements. Critically assessed are both the nature of the archaeological and environmental evidence for Mesolithic adaptations. A possible different approach is suggested, which acknowledges the importance of ecological changes in a large scale model of changing vegetation, but attempting to avoid static and deterministic interpretations.
Recent Archaeological Research on the Isle of Man edited by P.J. Davey with Foreword by Professor Sir David Wilson. 390 pages with numerous illustrations, 3 in colour. BAR 278 1999. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860549461. £18.00. Buy Now

This volume is the first of its kind since Man and the Environment in the Isle of Man in 1978 and stems from a seminar held in January 1998 where many of the papers published here were read. The publication contains twenty-eight papers on a wide range of sites and subjects, from the Manx Early Mesolithic to nineteenth century tobacco pipe works in Douglas as well as aerial photography, radiocarbon dates of the island and recent archaeological accessions to the Manx Museum. This book will stand as the basic work of reference for the island's archaeology for many years.
Texts and Monuments A study of ten Anglo-Saxon churches of the pre-Viking period by Christopher Pickles. 316 pages, 51 b/w figures with maps, drawings and photographs, 1 plate in colour. BAR 277 1999. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860549410. £18.00. Buy Now

Examination of ten major churches of pre-Viking period in Anglo-Saxon England, from a linguistic as well as from an historical point of view. As a whole, the book provides an historical context for the development of Anglo-Saxon architecture in the seventh and eighth centuries. Evidence from Merovinigian and early Carolingian Gaul is also examined and the text of almost all the documentary evidence, together with the author's new translations, is given in second part of the study.
Excavations alongside Roman Ermine Street, Cambridgeshire, 1996 The Archaeology of the A1(M) Alconbury to Peterborough Road Scheme by Peter Ellis, Gwilym Hughes, Peter Leach, Catharine Mould and Jon Sterenberg. pp 149 with b/w photos and line drawings. BAR 276 1998. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860549267. £18.00. Buy Now

Describes the results of archaeological investigations at a number of sites undertaken by Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit in 1996. New prehistoric sites were found along the length of the road corridor which, from Alconbury Hill to Norman Cross, coincides with Ermine Street. Here the major Roman road would have taken on additional importance where it skirted the fen edge. The book reports on a number of excavations along this section.
Llawhaden, Dyfed Excavations on a group of small defended enclosures, 1980-4 by George Williams and Harold Mytum edited by Kevin Blockley. pp 150 with b/w photos and line drawings. BAR 275 1998. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860549208. £18.00. Buy Now

Reports on an excavation programme developed by the Dyfed Archaeological Trust following its formation in 1975. The concentration of enclosures in the south-west of Wales was a well-known phenomenon, but their origins and development were poorly understood. The excavations showed activity from the Early Bronze Age to the post-Roman period. The volume presents seven sites in detail and considers the nature, function and status of the enclosures as well as the sequence and economy of the sites as a whole.
Great Witcombe Roman Villa, Gloucestershire A report on excavations by Ernest Greenfield 1960-1973 by Peter Leach with Lynne Bevan and Trevor Pearson and contributors. 141 pages, 43 line drawings, 31 b/w photographs. BAR 266 1998 Published in association with English Heritage 0. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860548791. £18.00. Buy Now

The basis of this book are excavations undertaken by Ernest Greenfield at the site of a Roman villa at Great Witcombe. The excavations and the finds are presented in detail. It is suggested that the villa belonged to the descendants of a veteran, settled on an estate established here at the foundation of the colonia at Gloucester.
The Neolithic Culture of the Isle of Man A study of the sites and pottery by Stephen Burrow. 149 pages and numerous illustrations. BAR 263 1997. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860548724. £18.00. Buy Now

This study considers a time span of two and a half thousand years from 4500cal BC, which constitute the Manx Neolithic. The work focuses in particular on the pottery, which is analyzed and characterized in detail, and the sites from which it is derived. All finds are fully illustrated.
Settlements at Skaill, Deerness, Orkney Excavations by Peter Gelling of the prehistoric, Pictish, Viking and later periods, 1963-1981 by Simon Buteux with contributors. 276 pages, numerous drawings and photographs. BAR 260 1997. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860548643. £18.00. Buy Now

Detailed reports of the excavations carried out by Peter Gelling between 1963 and 1981. Five locations have been investigated, revealing a sequence of settlement from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period. Published in the association with Historic Scotland.
Modelling the Effects of Tillage Processes on Artefact Distributions in the Ploughzone A simulation study of tillage-induced pattern formation by W.A. Boismier. 270 pages, numerous graphs and figures. BAR 259 1997. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860548600. £18.00. Buy Now

The effect of ploughing on stratigraphy and on artefacts spread over the surface is explored in this much-needed book. Agricultural engineering literature and the analysis of three experimental datasets have been used to produce a computer simulation of the effect of ploughing on the distribution of portable objects (not on architectural remains). How much of the original patterning on archaeological sites has been destroyed, and how much survives? Can tillage-induced changes in surface patterns be 'cancelled out' by identifying their effects? This closely argued book suggests answers.
Wine Drinking in Oxford A story revealed by tavern, inn, college and other bottles. With a catalogue of bottles and seals from the collection in the Ashmolean Museum by Fay Banks. BAR 257 1997. Only available as e-version. ISBN 0860548554. £18.00. Buy Now
Four Sites in Cambridgeshire Excavations at Pode Hole Farm, Paston, Longstanton and Bassingbourn, 1996-7 by Peter Ellis, Gary Coates, Richard Cuttler and Catharine Mould. 137 pages, 31 tables, 52 figures, 15 photographs. BAR 322 2001 Birmingham University Field Archaeology Unit Monograph Series 4. Only available as e-version. ISBN 1841712353. £18.00. Buy Now

A report on four pieces of fieldwork undertaken in Cambridgeshire (Pode Hole Farm, Paston, Longstanton, Bassingbourn) in 1996 and 1997. Pode Hole Farm provided Bronze Age to Romano-British material; Paston Romano-British; Longstanton Late Saxon and Medieval; and Bassingbourn Saxon and Medieval. Each has a similar format and layout, starting with a review of the processes leading up to the fieldwork and an outline of the methods used followed by acknowlegements. In the case of three of the excavations, an historical and documentary section follows which summarizes the known data before excavation began and provides a necessary historical background. In a general concluding discussion some points are considered from the excavations and the results are set within their county context.
Dead Men’s Eyes: Embodied GIS, Mixed Reality and Landscape Archaeology by Stuart Eve. xi+170 pages; illustrated throughout in colour & black and white. BAR 600 2014. ISBN 9781407312910. £34.00. Book contents pageBuy Now

This book provides an exciting foray into the use of emerging Mixed Reality techniques for examining and analysing archaeological landscapes. Mixed Reality provides an opportunity to merge the real world with virtual elements of relevance to the past, including 3D models, soundscapes, smellscapes and other immersive data. By using Mixed Reality, the results of sophisticated desk-based GIS analyses can be experienced directly within the field and combined with body-centered phenomenological analysis to create an embodied GIS. The book explores the potential of this methodology by applying it in the Bronze Age landscape of Leskernick Hill, Bodmin Moor, UK. Since Leskernick Hill has (famously) already been the subject of intensive phenomenological investigation, it is possible to compare the insights gained from 'traditional' landscape phenomenology with those obtained from the use of Mixed Reality, and effectively combine quantitative GIS analysis and phenomenological fieldwork into one embodied experience. This mixing of approaches leads to the production of a new innovative method which not only provides new interpretations of the settlement on Leskernick Hill but also suggests avenues for the future of archaeological landscape research more generally. The book will be of interest to anyone studying or working in the fields of landscape archaeology, digital techniques in archaeology, archaeological theory or GIS.
Social Dynamics in South-West England AD 350-1150: An exploration of maritime oriented identity by Imogen Tompsett. x+279 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. BAR 599 2014. ISBN 9781407312903. £42.00. Book contents pageBuy Now

This research investigates the development of early medieval identities in the South West, through continuity and change in the insular material culture, the settlements, and ultimately in social identity. These cycles of change, brought about by influences within and outside the region, are evidenced through regional (macro-scale) and micro-regional (site-specific) assessments of the evidence. An overriding sense of long-term continuity is perceived in the ability of these insular identities to retain former traditions and develop their material culture, despite the apparent political domination by far-reaching social groups in the Anglo-Saxon and Norman periods. These traditions consist of all social practices and portable material culture, including the ceramics which make up a large proportion of these finds, and where an examination of developments in form and fabric have created a chronological framework that is more sympathetic to the archaeology of the region than the accepted broad periods of Early, Middle and Late Saxon, and which perhaps reflects a more accurate picture of social changes through time. The retention of prehistoric and Late Roman practices, in particular the former, is seen throughout all aspects of the archaeological evidence and is examined here through the themes of settlement hierarchies, exchange mechanisms and identity, and their spatial differentiation, with geographical determinism a deciding factor in the form and nature of communities. The project explores the development of Late Roman societies in an assessment of the impact of geographical determinism on identity, and the potential development of Atlantic and maritime identities within society as a whole.
Further discoveries about the surveying and planning of Roman roads in northern Britain A sequel to BAR 492 by John Poulter. xii+92 pages; illustrated throughout in black and white. BAR 598 2014. ISBN 9781407312811. £24.00. Book contents pageBuy Now

The research reported in this monograph follows on directly from the findings that were reported in BAR 492, in which, among many other discoveries, the author recognised that the courses of both Roman Dere Street and Hadrian’s Wall had been underpinned by frameworks of long-distance alignments. Stimulated by the detection of several more of these alignments across northern England by another researcher, Robert Entwistle, the author, who is a chartered engineer as well as an archaeologist, seeks to examine why, how, and when such long-distance alignments may have been laid out. Consideration is then given to the processes by which some of these alignments seem subsequently to have been adopted to help set out the courses of Roman roads. These processes are shown, at times, to have been far from straightforward, and this appears to offer an explanation for many of the minor divergences that Roman roads, as built, take from such alignments in practice. The courses of four well-known Roman roads in Northern England are then examined in detail to diagnose the processes by which they are likely to have been planned and laid out. These roads are the Western Main Road from Manchester northwards through the Lune Gorge, the Maiden Way, the network of cross-country roads from Kirkham to Aldborough, and the Devil’s Causeway.